With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Alike the other typical developed countries, the infant population is relatively low and the life expectancy is quite long. The main population groups are focused on the 30-39 age group and 55-64 age group. Compare with the male population within this pyramid, the female population is slightly higher than the male one. Furthermore, as shown in the figure above, female life expectancy is higher than male life expectancy.
According to 2011 Population Census, over 60% of Polish people are urban residents, although this percentage has declined between the last censuses. The increase in rural population to the detriment of cities is caused not only by territorial dierentiativn of fertility, mortality and migration, but also by agglomeration processes, including suburbanisations. Survey conducted in Poznan indicated that suburbanisations involves mainly young families with children, people with higher education, and professionals who want to improve housing conditions . Consequently, we can observe not only intense, but very sudden changes in demographic structures of residents in large cities and surrounding regions. Apart from births and deaths, the impact of direct and in- direct migration on population structure is revealed.